While most historians (such as Beverly Gage and Nigel West) state that Julius had performed the abortion, an opposing position has been put forward by author . Epstein in his book puts forward the claim that it was Armand Hammer rather than his father who performed the abortion and his father Julius assumed the blame. Epstein's claims come from interview comments made by Bettye Murphy who had been Armand's mistress. According to Murphy and Epstein's account the legal strategy was that Julius did not deny that an abortion had been performed, but insisted that it had been medically necessary, and that a licensed doctor rather than a medical student would be more convincing in presenting that argument. Epstein's take on events remains controversial and a minority position.
After Julius was imprisoned he sent Armand Hammer to the Soviet Union to look after the affairs of his company Allied Drug and Chemical. Hammer would travel back and forth from the Soviet Union for the next 10 years.
In his 1983 book author discusses Hammer's "extensive involvement with Russia." In "Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer," Edward Jay Epstein called Hammer "a virtual spy" for the Soviet Union.
Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898 – December 10, 1990) was an American business manager and owner, most closely associated with , a company he ran from 1957 until his death, though he was known as well for his art collection, his philanthropy, and for his close ties to the .